Oral surgery usually refers to the extraction of a damaged tooth or a root, which cannot be cured due to pathologies to the surrounding tissues. When a tooth cannot be cured by endodontics, the dentist will try to prevent extraction by the means of apicectomy, removing the apical part of the root. When even this procedure fails, tooth extraction is the only therapy for certain diseases. On the other hand, oral surgery is also applied when preliminary treatments before implants’ placement are needed, like bone augmentation, done by procedures such as sinus lift.
With certain orthodontic procedures or when tooth eruption is hindered, oral surgery is applied to perform corticotomy.
Oral surgery also includes procedures on oral cavity's soft tissues, such as cysts’ removal and maxillofacial corrections.